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Cedrát - Citrus medica a Citrus limonimedica
 

Exotické rostliny, Zdeněk Černoch, Větřkovice u Vítkova

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Cedrát - Citrus medica a Citrus limonimedica

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Historical, cultural and religious origin of citrons

 

Citrus medica - citron - was known in ancient times as Malus medica, Malum felix or simply Citrus, which is the first name used by botanist Linne to describe the entire genus Citrus. Although „medica" suggests origin in Media, which is a fertile land close to Eufrat, according to many scholars these plants originate in either China or India. The mystery of its origin gave citron significant and important glance of oriental legend.

riesenkvet03 maximakvet

 

Precise century of citron's introduction to Mediterranean area is also unknown. According to many scientists, citrons were cultivated by Jews in Mesopotamia as early as 4000 B.C. in the ancient city Ur and then were brought to Syria and Europe. Killermann found several seeds in Sumer ruins that were later identified as citron seeds from apx 4000 B.C.

Written records about citrons were made by the founder of botany, Theofrastos, in 313 B.C.
A citron fruit - Etrog was imprinted in Jewish coins from the ruling of Simon The Macabej (66-70 B.C.).

Rutilio Palladio spoke of citrons as the first citrus brought to Italy, which is confirmed by the drawings found in Pompeii. Other scholars claim that citrons were planted and cultivated in Greece by the soldiers of Alexander the Great around 300 B.C. From Greece they later spread to islands in Aegean Sea, Sardinia, Corsica and during the reign of cisar Hadrianus also to Neapol area in Italy.

 

Other sources speculate that citrons found their way to Italy thanks to helenized Jews in the agricultural areas of ancient Greece (between 3rd and 2nd century B.C.). These Jews could have brought the citrons with them as their religious symbols, which would be supported by many drawings in Roman catacombs. According to Flavius, Jews knew citrons already during their enslavement in Egypt. When they left Egypt and were searching for their new, promised land, citron was selected by God as one of four fruits that could be used in religious rituals during the celebration called Sukkoth (Bible, Leviticus 24-40 ).

The other 3 were symbols and objects were palms frond, myrtle and willow branch. They all have also positive and peaceful meaning for the entire population. Sukkoth is celebrated only once a year for 7 days, but in many cases also 8 and 9 days.

 

Another symbol commemorating the end of Jewish enslavement in Egypt is sort of a tent with only 4 walls. Its roof is made of palm fronds, through which you can watch stars, but are not protected from rain. The missing 5th wall is a symbol of sympathy with those, who have no house or home. Orthodox Jews build this tent next to their houses even nowadays - when they live in flats, usually on balconies, letting their children eat and sleep inside overnight. That's why Jews buy the citron tree fruit - Etrog - for lots of money before the celebration of Sukkoth. For example in USA Etrog can be bought for 40$ plus shipping prices from the country of origin, e.g. Calabria. During unfavorable times, Jews were buying Etrogs from enemies, with problems on customs or for unfair prices. Fruit is kept in a special box on soft cushion in the tent (you can usually see lots of various decorative boxes when you view Google images for the phrase: Etrog or Ethrog).

The citron fruit must be undamaged and clean - "cosher." And this is not the only condition; the fruit should also be coming from a grafted, healthy tree, which is resting every 7 years (no harvest each 7th year) and not fertilized with the manure of "dirty animals" (pigs, crawfish). Etrogs mustn't be bruised and also must have certain conical shape with perfect tip.

 

Merchants and businessman offer the complete Etrog sets for the celebration of Sukkhot on www.flohrsesrogim.com. A set containing one fruit, a date palm frond, two willow twigs and 3 myrtle branches is usually sold for 35 to 180$. The most beautiful sets can cost as much as 500 and more dollars. Israeli citrons have "pitom", Italian citrons are without „pitom". A fruit with a „pitom" (translated as beautiful or beauty) is more "cosher", because according to the Bible, Etrogs should be complete. Pitom is a part of flower, that doesn't fall off after the pollination; it is a stylus, that grew into the rind. Fruit's ability to retain stylus is also called „stylus persistence" and its occurrence on different citron varieties is varying.

I was able to observe „stylus persistence" also on other varieties, for example bergamot and tangerine C. unshiu (satsuma) in my friend's, Mr. Hoška's, garden in Chotěboř. My friend Vladimír has had from thousands of shaddock fruits only 4 with a pitom. If a citron doesn't have pitom, it's still better than another case, when Etrog had a pitom that broke off. In this case the fruit is considered to be "incomplete". It's the same problem, as if the fruit was bruised or otherwise damaged.

 

Because of the need and demand for pitom fruit, citron cultivation found its importance in many citrus cultivation areas. After the devastation of Corfu market almost 200 years ago, Jews reoriented for another region in Europe - Calabria. Until the WWII came, each year many Jewish merchants came to Calabria to coordinate the citron harvest and distribution to large Jewish communities all over the world (London, New York, Hamburg, Odessa).

Nowadays the citron cultivation is restricted almost exclusively to Calabrian region called Riviera dei Cedri (Citron Riviera or also The Citron Coast). Catholic representatives annually accompany the Jewish rabbis, who come to Calabria to visit the Citron plantains and search for the most appealing fruit. Rabbis inspecting the fruit can also be seen on the pictures of this website: www.cedrocalabria.it .

Chinese use Citrus medica for room perfuming and the variety Sarcodactylis - Buddha's hand has its own significant role in Buddhism.

 

Besides the historical and religious meaning, citrons are very important in medicine, which was proved even by the most prestigious ancient western medical institution: Scuola Medica Salermitana.

Almost all the parts of citron trees are used in medicine: leaves, blossoms, fruit rinds, juices and essential oils. Their healing effects were used by monks in western Calabria for centuries, later also Normans, who built long viaducts for plantain irrigation.

The fragrance of citron flowers and small, ripe fruit growing on one plant at the same time were often present in the songs of medieval poets. It is truly remarkable, how the characteristics of this tree, quite unknown to almost entire medieval Europe, found its way to the songs and other forms of art.

 

One of the first places to admire citruses in public was in Pise, where students and specialists in medicine took care of the plants. Citrons along with other citruses were also grown by Medicejs from Florence, but they were grown in pots and stored in cold rooms and greenhouses for winter. This practice is common in Toscan region even nowadays (gardens Castello, Boboli, Garzoni and others). Growing citruses in pots became fashionable in aristocratic families and found its place also in Orangerias far from Florence.

 

18th century is not only a century of poets and philosophers, but also a century of botanists. And so in the year 1735 Mr. Linné gave citron a full identification name Citrus medica. It was also the time, when commercialization of citron cultivation was at its peek and therefore it was surprising, when Queen Maria Therese instituted unfair and unjust taxes for Italian citrons imported for Jews to the regions of Czech republic as we know it nowadays.

Linné organized known citron varieties into this chart:

Cumune Citrus medica L. Cedrát

Cedra, Cedro, Cedruna

This is a cultivar obviously originating in India, from where it spread to Iran and thanks to Jewish migration also much further to the Europe. It was the first citron known in Europe in the beginning of the 6th century B.C. It was brought to Italian region in the 2nd century B.C, at first only to Sardinia but then also to Sicily, Calabria and Campania. Its name - ‘Cedro' - also many times stands for the entire citron family. It is not a very high and vigorous tree that grows mostly vertically and has very assymetric crown and branches covered with thorns. Its leaves are medium-sized, not too large, oval, elongated and with slightly serrated edge. Its small, narrow petiole is separated from the leaf segment. Young shoots and blossoms are purple-red and grow mainly in clusters. The main flowering time is from spring to autumn. The fruit has big, oblong or cylindrical shape with a thick and intensively yellow rind. Along with limes, this is the least cold tolerant variety that tends to drop leaves during winter. Foliage of course grows back in spring.

cedrunaplody

 

Diamante Citrus medica L. Cedrát

It's a very popular variety in Mediterranean gardens that was found as a mutation in Calabrian locality Diamante. 'Diamante' now represents the most widely grown variety in Italy. It was also brought to USA in 1898.

The tree is not very high and has open, yet very wide crown. It has big thorns on the branches and the leaves are slightly oval, elongated, large and pointed at the tip. Flowers and young shoots are typically purple, its fruit is big, quite long, almost elliptic and has a typical, wide nipple. The rind is lemon yellow, when fully ripe, quite strong, thick, smooth, aromatic, sometimes also with ribs and can make up to 70% of the fruit's mass. It's usually preserved in jars. There's only a little soft, thick, quite dry pulp inside, which is as acidic as lemons and includes usually 60 or more seeds. This variety has recently found its place as an excellent indoor growing cultivar, mainly because it requires warmer winterizing.

diamante_kvety

 

Earle Citrus medica L. Cedrát

'Earle' was brought to USA from Cuba, other sources claim it is a sport originating in USA. This variety resembles ‘Diamante'.

citrus_medica_earle_03

 

Maxima Citrus medica L. Cedrát

a frutto grosso, Gigante, Gigantea

An old Italian variety cultivated mostly for its atypically sweeter fruit. It was described by Riccobono in his monography in 1899, where he describes all the citrus varieties cultivated in the Palermo botanical garden.

The tree itself is very vigorous and grows erratically, mostly vertically. It has spikes on its branches and medium-sized, elliptic or oval leaves with a rounded tip. This variety blooms year round and has very high yields; its main flowering phase is from spring to autumn. 'Maxima' has large, white, fragrant flowers that grow in clusters. Its fruit is very big, elongated and has thick, strong and yellow rind.

maximakvet c.medicamaximaplody maximacedrat c.medicamaxima

 

 

Red Skin Citrus medica L. Cedrát

'Red skin' comes from the collection of French grower from Menton. It is a remarkable, late variety with fruit ripening the next year after pollination of flowers (approximately 14 months until the fruitcan be harvested). The fruit is smaller and has very distinctive tip, when it is not ripe. It is a vigorous tree or shrub.

redskinkvet03 redskinplody

 

 

 

 

 

The description of citrons

All citron varieties can be divided into 2 groups:

a) sour/acidic citrons - their young shoots and blossoms are purple-red and the fruit has sour pulp
b) sweet citrons - they have green young shoots, white flowers and the fruit has almost no acids in the pulp.

Citron is a tree with tendency to grow more horizontally. Its branches are usually protected by long, strong spikes, which distinguish it from lemon trees. It has broad, long, varying, stiff, smooth, oblong leaves with typical veins and distinctive, dark green color on the upper side of the leaf and light green color on the bottom side of the leaf. Leaves have also lots of oil glands, which make them very fragrant in case they are somehow damaged. Typical citron fruit is big, wrinkled and has a thick rind. Root system can go as deep as 2 meters and has one main root, which stops growing in certain depth and then there are lots of radicles growing from its sides (very irregularly and assymetrically). The number, length and shapes of the radicals vary with different soils. Ideal soils for citrons are deep, fertile, heavier, sandy with quite a good water holding capacity.

The most ideal soil for these citruses are those with at least 20% of calcium clay, 70% of sand and 10% of humus. It is also necessary for the most optimal growth that the soil has sufficient amounts of calcium, nitrogen and certain acidity.

 

Citron is a citrus which hates cold. It is a plant more ideal for lower latitudes that provide more warmth. It usually comes to a vegetative state, when the temperatures rise above 14°C, it goes dormant in 4°C and dies in 0°C. There are however certain variety hardiness differences and many hybrids, usually with lemons (Citrus limonimedica) have better cold tolerance.

 

These trees are damaged by both, northern cold winds and southern salty winds, which cause the branches to crack and die, but also leaf drop. Therefore citrons are mostly cultivated close to the rivers and sea, so that they can use the water's excellent night heat capacity.

The tree is quite ordinary, its wood is however easier to crack and break and it is necessary to support the main fruting branches at the time of fruit ripening. Older branches seem to be cut right behind the tip of the branch. This is because the last leaf is usually protected by a spike, that in time weakens and falls off the branch, leaving only the bud behind.

Flowers of all citron varieties are very fragrant, large and therefore very attractive for the insect. They grow in clusters or groups. Usually the diclinous flowers fall and other remain and form the fruit. Flowering occurs continuously throughout the year.

 

The size and length of the fruit depends on the variety and its rind - pericarp - consists of 2 different layers. Outer exocarp is smooth or with a few ridges (depending on the variety) and has lots of essential oil glands with aromatic essential oils. It can change from intensively green to lemon yellow (flavedo) right before the harvest. The color can occasionally be also orange (e.g. Chinese citron C.medica Aurantiata, partially also cultivar Florentina).

Inner part of the rind - mezokarp or albedo is consistent and tightly attached with outer exocarp and together this 2 layers make up to 70 % of the citron fruit. The rind is usually used stewed.

 

Pulp - endocarp - is divided into several segments covered with a membrane. Each segment contains certain amount of seeds (how many depends on the variety), soluble sugar, large quantities of vitamin C, but also pectin and fiber.

Sour citron varieties

Liscia Diamante (smooth diamond), one of the most cultivated varieties, ideal for stewing, cultivated in Italy but also in other countries. It is a tree with open crown, almost straight branches with only very few spikes. It has smooth, leathery leaves and red young shoots. The fruit is heavy, elongated, ellipsoidic and its skin is smooth with intensive aroma. The pulp is sour.

Riccia or Rugosa, has sub-spherical shape with thick, scarred rind. It is cultivated in Calabria and Riva del Garda.

Limoniforme is the most cultivated Greek variety, priced mostly if it is properly preserved. It has deep and long ridges in the rind.

Policarpa has sub-spherical shape with round tip, thick rind and sour, small pulp. It is still cultivated in the Greece.

Etrog or Cedro dei Giudei (Jewish citron) is a variety grown in Israel and as many other citrons has rounded leaves and atypically shaped red flowers. Its fruit is big, heavy, resembles lemon and has thick, yellow rind. The pulp is quite dry and sour. Other cultivars of this variety are grown in Florida, California, Jerico Etrog, Judaiki in Israel, Romaiki and Kini cultivated in Greece and Cifutka v Albania.

Half-sour citron variety Earle is cultivated mostly in Cuba, Puerto Rico and in limited amounts also in California and Florida. It is easily identifiable thanks to the ridge going all the way through the fruits center. Endocarp segments are separated with a hollow space and the pulp is slightly sour and quite dry.

Buddha's hand, the big fruit has a shape of hand and a thick rind. It is cultivated in Japan, Indochina, mostly for decorative and religious purposes.

A variety called Saigon with half-sour pulp is cultivated in Asia.

 

Sweet citron varieties

The most famous variety is Corsican, which has most probably Corsican origin. It's cultivated in Provence, Southern France and Antilles, Spain, but the most important cultivation areas are in Puerto Rico, Florida and California. It's a vigorous tree with long and sharp spikes on its branches and distinctively red young shoots. The elliptic fruit has slightly pebbled rind and its pulp is dry, strong, very sweet and empty in the middle. Nowadays it is very sought after variety in fruit markets all over the world.

Other varieties with sweet pulp are Moroccan in origin, namely Assads and Guergueb. Rabi Yashar Levy wrote in the book „The Etrogim of Morocco" about villages Assads and Dumdir in southern Maroco that they were the first areas to cultivate a special Etrog with green young shoots, white flowers and sweeter pulp.

Cultivation on plantations

Cultivation of citrus on plantations is very specific. Italians call the citron plantations „cedriera". Citron plantations were due to the citron's weak cold resistance almost always established in areas with protected microclimate, e.g. areas close to lakes, rivers and the sea. Young trees are always painted with special emulsion (mixture of drierite (Calcium sulfate = CaSO4) and Slaked lime (Calcium hydroxide = Ca(OH)2)) for antifungal protection. Young branches are usually led by wires on pergolas to make sure, that heavy fruit won't break them. It also makes it easier to cover the trees if it was necessary in the winter. The pergola is in the height of 1m and is usually made of wood, bamboo and newly also from light alloys. It is attached to small, thick columns made of wood, steel and concrete. The trees are protected with mulch from autumn harvest to spring. Nowadays farmers also use synthetic materials and textile instead of classical mulch. Permeability of light through certain textiles allows also year-round cultivation with a special, protective textile fence, which I saw between the cities Santa Maria del Cedro and Scalea. In lower latitudes (Israel, Puerto Rico...), where the temperatures don't get so cold, citrons are cultivated without any protection and because they require lots of Nitrogen, they are usually fertilized with legumes. Furthermore it is fertilized by any fertilizer with NPK ratio 1:0,5:1,5.

Crossing branches are usually trimmed and that forces the blooming and fertility. 20 years old tree can have from 60-80 ripe, 2kg fruits with average pulp weight 700g each season.

The statistical data from citron production areas in the previous century suggests, that at least 20 000q were collected in Greek plantains (Corfu , Cyclads, Pelopones...), mainly only varieties Limoniformis, Policarpos and Judaiki for Jewish celebrations.

The largest producer of citrons in America is Puerto Rico (citruses were brought there by Columbus on his 2nd journey) with annual average of 35 000q, cultivated varieties are Corsican, Earle (Cuban) and Liscia Diamante.

Corsica, an island that gave world a new variety - Corsican - has been trying to seize to production, even though that this island produced over 80 000q in 1920. Plantations specialized in citron cultivation are in Italy located on Riviera dei Cedri. The record harvest counted around 80 000q and this number was achieved before the Second World War. After the War Italy produced only about 20 000q each year and until the end of the previous century the production went down to 10 000q.

In 1968 the worst frost in the history eliminated the entire harvest on Riviera. Similarly, the frosts from 3rd to 10th December 1987 lowered the yield to 3 000 q. Calabrian production has excellent reputation and is sold in Europe and USA.

Propagation of citrons

Cuttings are usually taken during the vegetation rest of the tree from 2-3 years old, selected branches. Even though citrons make roots reliably, this technique is nowadays used still less and less. Plants grown from cuttings usually suffer from many diseases, are less vigorous and have much higher soil requirements. The main rootstock used for citrons is Citrus aurantium.

Other rootstocks, mainly Citrus, Citrus volkameriana and tangelo Sampson are very popular in USA and Algeria, where they are commonly used for grafting citrons. Grafts are usually taken during the spring, when the plants are fully active.
Citrons are usually grafted in the height of 40cm, in Puerto Rico and Greece in the height of 1m.

Phytopathology of Citrus medica

  • Unfavorable physical and climatical influence and nutrition deficiencies

a) Ferrum deficiency causes chlorosis
b) Magnesium deficiency - yellowing of the leaves on the edges, the centre of leaves are green
c) Manganese deficiency - in the worst cases accompanied by tissue necrosis and leaf drop
d) Nitrogen deficiency - yellowing of the leaves accompanied by premature fruit yellowing
e) Zinc deficiency - causes leaf and undeveloped fruit drop and of course premature yellowing of the fruit
These deficiencies can be cured by various combined leaf fertilizers. All leaf fertilizers are for the best performance used only during the hot days.

  • Bacterial diseases

Piticchia (Pseudomonas syringae) invades the tree, when the humidity is very high and there is some wounded tissue on the branches. It causes branch necrosis and leaf drop. Piticchia can be cured with Cuprum additives during the vegetation rest.

 

  • Fungal diseases

Mal Secco (Deuterophoma tracheiphila) begins with a slight chlorosis of uppermost branches followed by leaf drop. It continues with the tree-wide drying up and death of the tree. The fungus spreads through the wounded tissue and multiplies in wooden tissue, thus prohibiting any nutrition flow. This disease has 2 forms: Slow (starting in the tree's crown) and fast (starting in the roots and it spreads fast thanks to the nutrition flow). It is necessary to remove the affected parts of the tree and prevent the outbreak with Cuprum fungicides.

Allupatura (Phytophthora citrophtora) occurs in higher humidity. It affects strong roots, fruit and the resin pours from the open wounds occurring shortly after the outbreak. Fruit is usually dropped not long after the outbreak as well and has brown spots all over the rind. Leaves turn yellow and in the worst cases the tree dies out.

Cancer (Dothiorella ribis) - the infection occurs on old trees in wounded tissue. The bark scales off and the lymph oozes of the tissue. Prevention against this type of fungus is Cuprum fungicide.

Antraktnosis (Colletotrichum gloesporioides) causes necrotic areas (white spots with dark edges) on the leaves in dense vegetation. Cuprum based fungicides are used as a cure for this kind of disease.

 

  • Pests

Citrons are favorite trees for various different pests, but mostly several different types of mealy bugs. They can be exterminated by chemical solutions.

 


Citron fruit usage

Seasoning with salt and preserving

Citrons are stewed in large wooden or plastic boxes with the salty sea water (sometimes it is necessary to add more salt, because the sea water is not salty enough). This way they are in an anti-fermentative solution. Citron fruit is usually kept in boxes or jars for about 40 to 60 days and after this period, additional salty water is added and the fruit is then candied (adding sugar, glucose...).

Usage in therapeutics

Almost any part of citron trees can be used for this purpose - seeds, pulp, rind, blossoms and even leaves of this precious plant. They are processed into juices, liquors, pickles, jams, macerates, tinctures, wraps, plasters and other medical widgets and tools. They can be used to suppress or eliminate problems with alimentary tract (bad digestion, lack of appetite, colitis, dysentery, parasites, tumor...), respiratory tract, asthma, bronchitis, high cholesterol, hypertension, insomnia, muscular tension and spasms, constipation, kidney problems, diabetes, chronic nose bleeding. Citron medica fruit has also antipyretic and antiscorbutic effects.

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Usage in cosmetics

Rind and leaf extracts gained by pressing and distillation are often used in crèmes, lotions, toothpastes, dental mouth-wash, shampoos, deodorant and antiperspirants, incense, perfumes, personal sanitary products... There are two interesting medical usages I will mention here:

Hot bath with dried citron flowers positively affects the nervous system, releases muscular tension, is good for blood circulation and brings soft, intense, long-lasting feeling of pleasure.

Citron rind cleans the yellow teeth and the citron juice is excellent nail polish.

Culinary usage

Citrus medica has wide usage in food processing industry: preserving and stewing rind, marmalades, dietary food and various national meals. Stewed citron rind is used for preparing cakes, desserts, sweet creamy tubes, rococo, sweet cakes ‘pasticcini', gingerbreads, Turkish honey, curd soufflé, ice cakes, sweet corn dampers, preserved in chocolate and with dried figs (excellent Calabrian delicacy).

 

Other uses of Citrons are liquors, punch, extracts, syrups, citronates, various beverages, ice cream and sweet fruit drinks, cornets and also a cool beverage called ‘frappe'.

You can found pictures of these delicacies on www.cedrocalabria.it, or even better on Riviera dei Cedri, in the historical part of the main square in the city Santa Maria del Cedro. Culinary meals with citrons can be orderedin any Calabrian restaurant with the menu labeled as „Prodotti Tipici Calabresi". All that remains to say is Bon appétit, which is the best ending for a hostiry and uses of ancient and mysterious citron.

 

This short article is directly related to Calabrian cultivation of Citrus medica. There are also other very interesting citron varieties that I didn't describe above, but surely deserve to be studied and cultivated.

 

Citrus limonimedica

 

Bicolor Citrus limonimedica Lush. Kříženec citroníku a cedrátu

Bicolore, di Lucca

Oscar Tintori said that he found this variety in Botanical Garden in Lucca. It got its name because of its fruit's color. 'Bicolor' grows very erratically and is taller than most of the citruses. There are small, scarcely growing spikes on its branches and elongated, dark green leaves. Blossoms are purple and grow almost excluseively in clusters. The main characteristic is the rind color, which is green-purple even fully ripe.

bicolorpupeny bicolor05

 

 

Etrog Citrus limonimedica Lush. Kříženec citroníku a cedrátu

861, Adams, Arizona 861, Arizona 861 S1, Arizona 861 S1 citron seedling, Atrog, Bajaura, Bajoura, Bajura, Bin-chuan-gou-cheng, Cifutka, de Jericho, degli Ebrei, dei Giudei, di Genova, Ethrog, Etrog 861, Etrog 861-S1, Hadar, Isole di Brissago, Jerico etrog, Jericho, Judaena, Judaiki, Judia, Mediterranean, Paradise apple, Poncil, Purpurea, Romaiki a Kini, S-1, Tronj

'Bajoura' was discovered in the Middle East and Palestine and is cultivated mainly in Israel and supposedly on the Greek island Corfu. According to several sources it is about 5000 years old variety. Gallesio described 'Bajoura' in 1811: "It is widely cultivated in Liguria, especially in the Sanremo area, where it is propagated by cuttings or grafting on Sour Orange. Its fruit harvested in late autumn or winter is usually processed into delicious marmalades, whereas the fruit harvested in summer is sold to Jews for their celebrations of Sukkoth." Gallesio wrote in 1839 that this citron variety is sold as "Pitima", because of the pistil it retains. 'Bajoura' was classified as C. medica L. subsp. bajoura Bonavia and as Citrus bajoura.

It is a smaller, erratically growing tree with open, uneven crown and significantly smaller yield than other citrons. 'Bajoura' has distinctive, elliptic and very aromatic leaves with rounded tip and intensively green backside, distinctively curved. Its young shoots and buds typically have a hint of red and its flowers, white inside, purple-white outside, grow in clusters. The elliptic, egg-shaped fruit is average, very long (12-13cm), usually elongated on apex. It has typical nipple and is very fragrant. Rind is lemon yellow to yellow-orange, thick, strong, slightly pebbled and extremely well attached to the pulp (very difficult to peel). There's not very much sour brown pulp that gets sweeter as it fully ripens. The flesh is divided into maybe 14 segments and can contain lots of seeds. This variety is especially susceptible to cold and tends to drop leaves in winter.

This variety's fruit has been used during Sukkoth ever since the ancient times. That's why a new clone 'Jericho' was created and is nowadays cultivated in Israel. Jews believe that the citron was a forbidden fruit in the paradise. This improved variety's fruit is oval and has lots of seeds. It is native to the Middle East and the seedlings of this variety are monoembryonic and perfectly identical and balanced plants. It is suitable for growing indoors (grafted on lemon, orange or grapefruit). The clone 'S-1' has smaller fruit (6,5-9 cm) full of seeds. Other variety, 'Paradisi', is sometimes referred to as the clone too.

bajoura02

 

 

Etrog Citrus limonimedica Lush. Kříženec citroníku a cedrátu

861, Adams, Arizona 861, Arizona 861 S1, Arizona 861 S1 citron seedling, Atrog, Bajaura, Bajoura, Bajura, Bin-chuan-gou-cheng, Cifutka, de Jericho, degli Ebrei, dei Giudei, di Genova, Ethrog, Etrog 861, Etrog 861-S1, Hadar, Isole di Brissago, Jerico etrog, Jericho, Judaena, Judaiki, Judia, Mediterranean, Paradise apple, Poncil, Purpurea, Romaiki a Kini, S-1, Tronj

'Bajoura' was discovered in the Middle East and Palestine and is cultivated mainly in Israel and supposedly on the Greek island Corfu. According to several sources it is about 5000 years old variety. Gallesio described 'Bajoura' in 1811: "It is widely cultivated in Liguria, especially in the Sanremo area, where it is propagated by cuttings or grafting on Sour Orange. Its fruit harvested in late autumn or winter is usually processed into delicious marmalades, whereas the fruit harvested in summer is sold to Jews for their celebrations of Sukkoth." Gallesio wrote in 1839 that this citron variety is sold as "Pitima", because of the pistil it retains. 'Bajoura' was classified as C. medica L. subsp. bajoura Bonavia and as Citrus bajoura.

It is a smaller, erratically growing tree with open, uneven crown and significantly smaller yield than other citrons. 'Bajoura' has distinctive, elliptic and very aromatic leaves with rounded tip and intensively green backside, distinctively curved. Its young shoots and buds typically have a hint of red and its flowers, white inside, purple-white outside, grow in clusters. The elliptic, egg-shaped fruit is average, very long (12-13cm), usually elongated on apex. It has typical nipple and is very fragrant. Rind is lemon yellow to yellow-orange, thick, strong, slightly pebbled and extremely well attached to the pulp (very difficult to peel). There's not very much sour brown pulp that gets sweeter as it fully ripens. The flesh is divided into maybe 14 segments and can contain lots of seeds. This variety is especially susceptible to cold and tends to drop leaves in winter.

This variety's fruit has been used during Sukkoth ever since the ancient times. That's why a new clone 'Jericho' was created and is nowadays cultivated in Israel. Jews believe that the citron was a forbidden fruit in the paradise. This improved variety's fruit is oval and has lots of seeds. It is native to the Middle East and the seedlings of this variety are monoembryonic and perfectly identical and balanced plants. It is suitable for growing indoors (grafted on lemon, orange or grapefruit). The clone 'S-1' has smaller fruit (6,5-9 cm) full of seeds. Other variety, 'Paradisi', is sometimes referred to as the clone too.

Florentina Citrus limonimedica Lush. Kříženec citroníku a cedrátu

de Florence, di Firenze, di Pietrasanta

Nati defines this variety as "the most exclusively fragrant and delicious of all the lemons designated as rootstocks (called in the local dialect also "Cedrato"). It was brought to Medicej gardens in Florence sometime around the beginning of the 17th century. Obviously it has its origin in the countryside of the Pietrasanta area. Targioni Tozzetti stated in 1780 that this variety is valued for its unique and wonderful aroma above any other.

'Florentina' is an average tree with erratic, mostly vertical growth. Its branches are full of thorns and young shoots are distinctively purple. The leaves of this variety are oval or almost elliptic and have serrated edges. Its flowers with a hint of purple grow mainly in clusters and make a wonderful contrast with the rest of the tree. The fruit is average and pebbled and has golden yellow and very aromatic rind with typical elongated tip.

fiorentinapupeny

 

 

Nine pounder Citrus limonimedica Lush. Kříženec citroníku a cedrátu


As the name suggests, it is a historical variety with large fruit, a cross of lemon and citron. It is filed as C. limonimedica Lush., but this information hasn't been confirmed.

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Perettone Citrus limonimedica Lush. Kříženec citroníku a cedrátu

Perettone Canaliculata

'Perettone canaliculata' is a historical variety, which can be found in early recordings of Medicej collection. It is an exquisite exemplar that is a part of citrus collection in Mainau as well.

It's a vigorous, mostly vertically growing tree with asymmetric crown. Its leaves are average, not too large, elliptic and resemble those of lemons. It blooms mainly from early spring to late autumn and its purple young shoots are growing individually. The fruit is egg-shaped, medium-sized (6-8cm), bigger than lemon with elongated neck and distinctive nipple at the tip. Its rind is dark yellow, very thick and has deep ridges all over it. There's only little dry, sour pulp inside the fruit divided into 8 segments usually without any seeds. The fruit ripens from October to November and tree tends to drop leaves in the winter but remains an excellent decorative plant.

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Riesen Zitrone Fernandina Citrus limonimedica

'Riesen zitrone Fernandina' originates in Vienna, Austria (or at least the grafts originate there). It's a vigorous tree blooming the whole year (with short breaks). Flowers grow in clusters of 15 on individual flower shoots. They are large, pink on the back side of the floral petals and white on the other side. It is however less intensively fragrant than other citruses.

riesenkvet03 reisenzitrone reisenplody

 

 

 

Roxani ® Citrus limonimedica Lush. Kříženec citroníku a cedrátu

Variety brought from Germany. It hasn't fruited yet.

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San Domenico Citrus limonimedica Lush. Kříženec citroníku a cedrátu

di San Domenico, di San Domingo, Sanctus Dominicus, Spatafora

'San Domenico' is famous historical variety that was brought to Medicej gardens before 1600. It probably originates in San Domingo, because it was mostly known and cultivated in the gardens of Dominican monks. According to Ferrari's "Peretta sive Spatafora duplex", Gallesio wrote in 1839: "This citron (in original work referred to as Cedro) is distinctive with its small habit and unique crown shape."

'San Domenico' is an average tree, growing more like a shrub - horizontally. Its leaves are small and have serrated edges, their tip is slightly rounded. Floral petals have a hint of purple and grow mainly individually. Typical fruit is small, pear-shaped with stylus present until the full ripeness. Thick and fragile rind is yellow and aromatic. The sour pulp is juicy and very tasty.

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